“Diavolul in Istorie”: Recenzii in “Times Higher Education” si “The Daily Beast”

Cum au ajuns comunismul si fascismul sa recurga la metode similare ori chiar identice? Care au fost  originile afinitatilor dintre doua sisteme si doua ideologii altminteri situate la capetele opuse ale spectrului politcii moderne? Ce le-a unit si ce le-a despartit? Cum putem explica longevitatea spectaculoasa si atat de costisitoare uman a comunismului? De ce au actionat atat comunismul cat si fascismul in chip genocidar? Sunt viciile capitalismului, atatea cate sunt, comparabile cu crimele absolute comise de monstrii totalitari? Tot atatea intrebari la care incerc sa raspund in cartea mea The Devil in History: Communism, Fascism, and Some Lessons of the Twentieth Century (University of California Press, 2012).

Sunt interogatii la care au oferit raspunsuri originale cei trei mari intelectuali carora le-am dedicat cartea: istoricul Tony Judt, filosoful Leszek Kolakowski si politologul Robert C. Tucker. Plecati dintre noi, ei raman prezenti prin ideile care continua sa ne inspire. Intre acestea, prezenta Diavolului in Istorie. Plecand de la ideile lor si intrand in dialog cu alti remarcabili ganditori, am propus o interpretare personala care accentueaza rolul ideologiei in ceea ce altminteri poate parea absurd si chiar dement.

In saptamanalul “Times Higher Education” (13 septembrie 2012), istoricul Richard Overy, auorul celebrei carti “Dictators: Hitler’s Germany, Stalin’s Russia” (Norton, 2004), insista asupra relatiei dintre intentiile utopice si concretizarile demonice ale nesabuitelor proiecte de reconstructie nu doar a societatii si economiei, ci chiar a conditiei umane:

Tismaneanu reflects as a political philosopher, rather than a historian, on what gave totalitarian regimes their terrible power in the 20th century to do so much evil in the name of revolutionary or racial justice. His real concern is to examine what he calls the “maximalist utopian aspirations” expressed by communist and fascist regimes in Europe to try to understand how it is that systems that set out with a utopian agenda – world revolution or national rebirth – end up constructing murderous dystopias. There is a consensus in the Western world that these were “delusional visions”, as Tismaneanu calls them, but both European communism and fascism have died as mainstream political forces, making it easier to see them as deluded. The core of this perceptive and intelligent analysis is addressed to the more troubling question of how they were possible at all.


In publicatia  The Daily Beast, the online home a saptamanalului Newsweek, a aparut pe 28 septembrie o pasionata si pasionanta recenzie de J. P. O’Malley la cartea mea.

How did two seemingly opposite ideologies—one on the extreme left, the other on the extreme right—end up perpetrating such similar atrocities? Vladimir Tismaneanu gives his answer in a new book.


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