François Furet was right when he wrote “la révolution n’est pas un bloc.” Indeed, it’s a fractured edifice with segments, fragments, tensions, sequences, prelude and post-scriptum. But that was true of the French Revolution. Lenin’s revolution was a bloc: it was monistic, monomaniacal, and monstruosly, inhumanly utopian. It was a revolution against another revolution. Its aims were to destroy February 1917. In other words, its purpose was to destroy the fledgling bourgeois modernity in Russia. To get rid of the despised “liberal rghts.” It was political hubris run amok. They knew it, Rosa Luxemburg, Julius Martov, Karl Kautsky, Pavel Akselrod, Georgy Plekhanov, Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea, Leon Blum, Ema Goldman, Bertrand Russell…

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