Qui vivra, verra: Will the xenophobic, neo-Fascist, populist plague prevail in France? Will the ghosts of Pétain, Laval, Doriot, Déat, Maurras etc defeat the legacies of de Gaulle, Jean Moulin, Malraux, Camus, Robert Schuman, Raymond Aron, Mendès France?
I dedicate this post to the memory of André Malraux (1901-1976), one of the greatest novelists and public intellectuals of the twentieth century, an uncompromising anto-Fascist fighter. Marine Le Pen doesn’t need to praise le Maréchal, it’s enough that her ideological bricolage is pétainiste in its thrust, phobias, and mythologies. What she wants is “la révolution nationale,” la France pour les Français de bonne souche. Foreigners are apriorically inimical to le bien-être de la nation, they need to be expelled. Next step, eliminated. Then… Her amitié with Putin is ominous and alarming. Marine Le Pen”s victory would mean the second death of Jean Moulin and the demise of the Fifth Republic…
At the POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews (Polish: Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich), Warsaw, April 2017. POLIN was built on the site of the former Warsaw Ghetto. The Ghetto Uprising started on April 19, 1943. POLIN is located on a street named after Mordechai Anielewicz, one of the leaders of the Uprising. I visited POLIN together with Beata Czajkowska, Olga Brzezinska, and Marius Stan.
In October 1939, the Schutz Staffeinel (SS) began to deport Jews living in Austria and Czechoslovakia to ghettos in Poland. Transported in locked passenger trains, large numbers died on the journey. Those that survived the journey were told by Adolf Eichmann, the head of the Gestapo’s Department of Jewish Affairs: “There are no apartments and no houses – if you build your homes you will have a roof over your head.”
In Warsaw all 22 entrances to the ghetto were sealed. The German authorities allowed a Jewish Council (Judenrat) of 24 men to form its own police to maintain order in the ghetto. The Judenrat was also responsible for organizing the labour battalions demanded by the German authorities. Conditions in the Warsaw ghetto were so bad that between 1940 and 1942 an estimated 100,000 Jews died of starvation and disease in the Warsaw Ghetto.
Anielewicz returned to Warsaw where he attempted to organize resistance to the Nazi occupation and in November 1942 was elected as chief commander of the Jewish Fighter Organization in the ghetto.
Between 22nd July and 3rd October 1942, 310,322 Jews were deported from the Warsaw ghetto to extermination camps. Information got back to the ghetto what was happening to those people and it was decided to resist any further attempts at deportation. In January 1943, Heinrich Himmler gave instructions for Warsaw to be “Jew free” by Hitler’s birthday on 20th April.
Anielewicz now played a prominent role in organizing resistance in Warsaw. On 19th April 1943, the Waffen SS entered the ghetto. Although though only had two machine-guns, fifteen rifles and 500 pistols, the Jews opened fire on the soldiers. They also attacked them with grenades and petrol bombs. The Germans took heavy casualties on the first day and the Warsaw military commander, Brigadier-General Jürgen Stroop, ordered his men to retreat. He then gave instructions for all the buildings in the ghetto to be set on fire.
As people fled from the fires they were rounded up and deported to the extermination camp at Treblinka. The ghetto fighters continued the battle from the cellars and attics of Warsaw. On 8th May the Germans began using poison gas on the insurgents in the last fortified bunker. About a hundred men and women escaped into the sewers but the rest were killed by the gas, including Mordechai Anielewicz.
Increasingly plausible worst case scenario for the second round of the forthcoming presidential elections in France. Marine Le Pen, a fascistoid, Putinophile, xenophobic and Europhobic candidate, versus Jean-Luc Mélenchon, an unrepentant ex-Trotskyist, no less Europhobic and uncompromisgly anti-liberal. An ominous confirmation of my hypotheses on the Stalino-Fascist baroque…
Somnambulismul ideologic a fost una din patologiile veacului trecut. Riscă să fie și una a celui actual. Hitler spunea că își urmează destinul „cu siguranța unui somnambul”. Secolul XX a fost dominat de saltimbanci și somnambuli, de magicieni și demagogi, de pseudo-profeți și de șarlatani cinici. Înarmați cu ideologii revoluționare, precum Piotr Verhovenski din “Demonii” lui Dostoievski, au putut să dea foc unor cetăți mult prea vulnerabile, asemeni Rusiei lui Kerenski și Republicii de la Weimar. Ori, de ce nu, României interbelice, atacată de cei numiți de Dinu Pillat vestitori. Iar intelighenția a fost încântată să participe la aceste jocuri piromane. Când s-a trezit, era prea târziu, ritualurile nihiliste își produseseră efectele, noii herostrați câștigaseră partida. Contrapartea cronologică a Nopții de Cristal și a abjectei prigoane antisemite din Germania nazistă a fost Marea Teroare din Uniunea Sovietică stalinistă, deci comunistă. Ambele operațiuni criminale se pretindeau purificatoare. Nu discut aici numărul victimelor, ci intenționalitatea distructivă, exterministă. Teroarea organizată cu sprijinul tuturor aparatelor statale face parte din codul genetic al totalitarismului. Este, dacă vreți, numitorul comun al acestor sisteme…